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Model Text for the Indian Bilateral Investment Treaty
BILATERAL INVESTMENT TREATY BETWEEN
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA
The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of ----- --------------- (hereinafter referred to as the "Party" individually or the "Parties" collectively);
Desiring to promote bilateral cooperation between the Parties with respect to foreign investments; and
Recognizing that the promotion and the protection of investments of investors of one Party in the territory of the other Party will be conducive to the stimulation of mutually beneficial business activity, to the development of economic cooperation between them and to the promotion of sustainable development,
Reaffirming the right of Parties to regulate investments in their territory in accordance with their law and policy objectives.
Have agreed as follows:
Chapter I - Preliminary
For the purposes of this Treaty:
1.1 "confidential information" means business confidential information, e.g. confidential commercial, financial or technical information which could result in material loss or gain or prejudice a disputing party's competitive position, and information that is privileged or otherwise protected from disclosure under the law of a Party;
1.2 "Designated Representative" means:
1.3 "enterprise" means:
1.4 "investment" means an enterprise constituted, organised and operated in good faith by an investor in accordance with the law of the Party in whose territory the investment is made, taken together with the assets of the enterprise, has the characteristics of an investment such as the commitment of capital or other resources, certain duration, the expectation of gain or profit, the assumption of risk and a significance for the development of the Party in whose territory the investment is made. An enterprise may possess the following assets:
For greater clarity, investment does not include the following assets of an enterprise:
1.5 "investor" means a natural or juridical person of a Party, other than a branch or representative office, that has made an investment in the territory of the other Party;
For the purposes of this definition, a "juridical person" means:
1.6 "law" includes:
1.7 "local government" includes:
1.8 "measure" includes a law, regulation, rule, procedure, decision, administrative action, requirement or practice.
1.9 "natural person" means a national or citizen of a Party in accordance with its law and regulations. A natural person who is a dual national or citizen shall be deemed to be exclusively a national or citizen of the country of her or his dominant and effective nationality/citizenship, where she/he ordinarily or permanently resides.
1.10 "PCA Optional Rules" means the Permanent Court of Arbitration Optional Rules for Arbitration Disputes between Two States, 20 October 1992.
1.11 The term "Pre-investment activity" includes any activities undertaken by the investor or its enterprise prior to the establishment of the investment in accordance with the law of the Party where the investment is made. Any activity undertaken by the investor or its investment pursuant to compliance with sectoral limitations on foreign equity, and other limits and conditions applicable under any law relating to the admission of investments in the Party where the investment is made in specific sectors falls within the meaning of "Preinvestment activity".
1.12 "Sub-national government" means a State Government or a Union Territory administration in the case of India but does not include local governments; and - ---- in case of ------
1.13 "Territory" means:
1.14 "WTO Agreement" means the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, done at Marrakesh on 15 April, 1994.
1.15 The Annexures, Provisos and Footnotes in this Treaty constitute an integral part of this Treaty and are to be accorded the same effect as other provisions in this Treaty.
2.1 This Treaty shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by a Party relating to investments of investors of another Party in its territory, in existence as of the date of entry into force of this Treaty or established, acquired, or expanded thereafter, and which have been admitted by a Party in accordance with its law, regulations and policies as applicable from time to time.
2.2 Subject to the provisions of Chapter III of this Treaty, nothing in this Treaty shall extend to any Pre-investment activity related to establishment, acquisition or expansion of any investment, or to any measure related to such Pre-investment activities, including terms and conditions under such measure which continue to apply post-investment to the management, conduct, operation, sale or other disposition of such investments.
2.3 This Treaty shall not apply to claims arising out of events which occurred, or claims which have been raised prior to the entry into force of this Treaty.
2.4 This Treaty shall not apply to:
Chapter II: Obligations of Parties
3.1 No Party shall subject investments made by investors of the other Party to measures which constitute a violation of customary international law [For greater certainty, it is clarified that "customary international law" only results from a general and consistent practice of States that they follow from a sense of legal obligation.] through:
3.2 Each Party shall accord in its territory to investments of the other Party and to investors with respect to their investments full protection and security. For greater certainty, "full protection and security" only refers to a Party's obligations relating to physical security of investors and to investments made by the investors of the other Party and not to any other obligation whatsoever.
3.3 A determination that there has been a breach of another provision of this Treaty, or of a separate international agreement, does not establish that there has been a breach of this Article.
3.4 In considering an alleged breach of this article, a Tribunal shall take account of whether the investor or, as appropriate, the locally-established enterprise, pursued action for remedies before domestic courts or tribunals prior to initiating a claim under this Treaty.
4.1 Each Party shall not apply to investor or to investments made by investors of the other Party, measures that accord less favourable treatment than that it accords, in like circumstances, [For greater certainty, whether treatment is accorded in "like circumstances" depends on the totality of the circumstances, including whether the relevant treatment distinguishes between investors or investments on the basis of legitimate regulatory objectives. These circumstances include, but are not limited to, (a) the goods or services consumed or produced by the investment; (b) the actual and potential impact of the investment on third persons, the local community, or the environment, (c) whether the investment is public, private, or state-owned or controlled, and (d) the practical challenges of regulating the investment.] to its own investors or to investments by such investors with respect to the management, conduct, operation, sale or other disposition of investments in its territory.
4.2 The treatment accorded by a Party under Article 4.1 means, with respect to a Sub-national government, treatment no less favourable than the treatment accorded, in like circumstances, by that Sub-national government to investors, and to investments of investors, of the Party of which it forms a part.
5.1 Neither Party may nationalize or expropriate an investment of an investor (hereinafter "expropriate") of the other Party either directly or through measures having an effect equivalent to expropriation, except for reasons of public purpose [For the avoidance of doubt, where India is the expropriating Party, any measure of expropriation relating to land shall be for the purposes as set out in its Law relating to land acquisition and any questions as to "public purpose" and compensation shall be determined in accordance with the procedure specified in such Law.], in accordance with the due process of law and on payment of adequate compensation. Such compensation shall be adequate and be at least equivalent to the fair market value of the expropriated investment immediately on the day before the expropriation takes place ("date of expropriation"), and shall not reflect any change in value occurring because the intended expropriation had become known earlier. Valuation criteria shall include going concern value, asset value including declared tax value of tangible property, and other criteria, as appropriate, to determine fair market value.
5.2 Payment of compensation shall be made in a freely convertible currency. Interest on payment of compensation, where applicable, shall be paid in simple interest at a commercially reasonable rate from the date of expropriation until the date of actual payment. On payment, compensation shall be freely transferable in accordance with Article 6.
5.3 The Parties confirm their shared understanding that:
5.4 For the avoidance of doubt, the Parties agree that an action taken by a Party in its commercial capacity shall not constitute expropriation or any other measure having similar effect.
5.5 Non-discriminatory regulatory measures by a Party or measures or awards by judicial bodies of a Party that are designed and applied to protect legitimate public interest or public purpose objectives such as public health, safety and the environment shall not constitute expropriation under this Article.
5.6 In considering an alleged breach of this Article, a Tribunal shall take account of whether the investor or, as appropriate, the locally-established enterprise, pursued action for remedies before domestic courts or tribunals prior to initiating a claim under this Treaty.
6.1 Subject to its law, each Party shall permit all funds of an investor of the other Party related to an investment in its territory to be freely transferred and on a non-discriminatory basis. Such funds may include:
6.2 Unless otherwise agreed to between the Parties, currency transfer under Article 6.1 shall be permitted in the currency of the original investment or any other convertible currency. Such transfer shall be made at the prevailing market rate of exchange on the date of transfer.
6.3 Nothing in this Treaty shall prevent a Party from conditioning or preventing a transfer through a good faith application of its law, including actions relating to:
6.4 Notwithstanding anything in Article 6.1 and 6.2 to the contrary, the Parties may temporarily restrict transfers in the event of serious balance-of-payments difficulties or threat thereof, or in cases where, in exceptional circumstances, movements of capital cause or threaten to cause serious difficulties for macroeconomic management, in particular, monetary and exchange rate policies.
Each Party shall accord to investors of another Party, and to investments by such investors, non-discriminatory treatment with respect to measures, including restitution, indemnification, compensation or other settlement, it adopts or maintains relating to losses suffered by investments in its territory owing to war or other armed conflict, civil strife, state of national emergency or a natural disaster.
8.1 If a Party or its designated agency makes a payment to any of its investors under a guarantee or a contract of insurance it has entered into in respect of an investment, the other Party shall recognize the validity of the subrogation in favour of such Party or agency thereof to any right or title held by the investor.
8.2 A Party or its designated agency thereof which is subrogated to the rights of an investor in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article shall be entitled in all circumstances to the same rights as those of the investor in respect of the investment. Such rights may be exercised by the Party or its designated agency thereof, or by the investor if the Party or any agency thereof so authorizes.
9.1 Subject to its law relating to the entry and sojourn of non-citizens and on the basis of reciprocity, each Party shall permit natural persons of the other Party employed by the investor or the locally established enterprise to enter and remain in its territory for the purpose of engaging in activities connected with the investment.
9.2 For the purposes of this Article, "natural person of the other Party" means a natural person who resides in the territory of that Party or elsewhere, and who under the law of that other Party:
10.1 Each Party shall, to the extent possible, ensure that its laws, regulations, procedures, and administrative rulings of general application in respect of any matter covered by this Treaty are promptly published or otherwise made available in such a manner as to enable interested persons and the other Party to become acquainted with them.
10.2 Each Party shall, as provided for in its laws and regulations:
10.3 Each Party shall, upon request by the other Party, promptly respond to specific questions from and provide information to the other Party with respect to matters referred to in Article 10.1.
10.4 Nothing in this Treaty shall require a Party to furnish or allow access to confidential information, the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement, or otherwise be contrary to the public interest, or which would prejudice legitimate commercial interests of particular juridical persons, public or private.
Chapter III - Investor obligations
The parties reaffirm and recognize that:
Investors and their enterprises operating within its territory of each Party shall endeavour to voluntarily incorporate internationally recognized standards of corporate social responsibility in their practices and internal policies, such as statements of principle that have been endorsed or are supported by the Parties. These principles may address issues such as labour, the environment, human rights, community relations and anti-corruption.
13.1 Without prejudice to the rights and obligations of the Parties under Chapter V, this Chapter establishes a mechanism for the settlement of disputes between an investor and a Defending Party.
13.2 This Chapter shall only apply to a dispute between a Party and an investor of the other Party with respect to its investment, arising out of an alleged breach of an obligation of a Party under Chapter II of this Treaty, other than the obligation under Articles 9 and 10 of this Treaty.
13.3 A Tribunal constituted under this Chapter shall only decide claims in respect of a breach of this Treaty as set out in Chapter II, except under Articles 9 and 10, and not disputes arising solely from an alleged breach of a contract between a Party and an investor. Such disputes shall only be resolved by the domestic courts or in accordance with the dispute resolution provisions set out in the relevant contract.
13.4 An investor may not submit a claim to arbitration under this Chapter if the investment has been made through fraudulent misrepresentation, concealment, corruption, money laundering or conduct amounting to an abuse of process or similar illegal mechanisms.
13.5 In addition to other limits on its jurisdiction, a Tribunal constituted under this Chapter shall not have the jurisdiction to:
13.6 A dispute between an investor and a Party shall proceed sequentially in accordance with this Chapter.
13.7 For the purposes of this Chapter:
14.1 Where claims are brought pursuant to this Chapter and another international agreement and:
15.1 In respect of a claim that the Defending Party has breached an obligation under Chapter II, other than an obligation under Article 9 or 10, a disputing investor must first submit its claim before the relevant domestic courts or administrative bodies of the Defending Party for the purpose of pursuing domestic remedies in respect of the same measure or similar factual matters for which a breach of this Treaty is claimed. Such claim before the relevant domestic courts or administrative bodies of the Defending Party must be submitted within one (1) year from the date on which the investor first acquired, or should have first acquired, knowledge of the measure in question and knowledge that the investment, or the investor with respect to its investment, had incurred loss or damage as a result.
For greater certainty, in demonstrating compliance with the obligation to exhaust local remedies, the investor shall not assert that the obligation to exhaust local remedies does not apply or has been met on the basis that the claim under this Treaty is by a different party or in respect of a different cause of action.
Provided, however, that the requirement to exhaust local remedies shall not be applicable if the investor or the locally established enterprise can demonstrate that there are no available domestic legal remedies capable of reasonably providing any relief in respect of the same measure or similar factual matters for which a breach of this Treaty is claimed by the investor.
15.2 Where applicable, if, after exhausting all judicial and administrative remedies relating to the measure underlying the claim for at least a period of five years from the date on which the investor first acquired knowledge of the measure in question, no resolution has been reached satisfactory to the investor, the investor may commence a proceeding under this chapter by transmitting a notice of dispute ("notice of dispute") to the Defending Party.
15.3 The notice of dispute shall: specify the name and address of the disputing investor or the enterprise, where applicable; set out the factual basis of the claim, including the measures at issue; specify the provisions of the Treaty alleged to have been breached and any other relevant provisions; demonstrate compliance with Article 15.1 and 15.2, where applicable; specify the relief sought and the approximate amount of damages claimed; and furnish evidence establishing that the disputing investor is an investor of the other Party.
15.4 For no less than six (6) months after receipt of the notice of dispute, the disputing parties shall use their best efforts to try to resolve the dispute amicably through meaningful consultation, negotiation or other third party procedures. In all such cases, the place of such consultation or negotiation or settlement shall be the capital city of the Defending Party.
15.5 In the event that the disputing parties cannot settle the dispute amicably, a disputing investor may submit a claim to arbitration pursuant to this Treaty, but only if the following additional conditions are satisfied:
16.1 A disputing investor who meets the conditions precedent provided for in Article 15 may submit the claim to arbitration under:
16.2 The applicable arbitration rules shall govern the arbitration except to the extent modified by this Chapter, and supplemented by any subsequent rules adopted by the Parties.
16.3 A claim is submitted to arbitration under this Chapter when:
16.4 Delivery of notice and other documents on a Party shall be made to the Designated Representative for each Party.
17.1 Each Party consents to the submission of a claim to arbitration in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.
17.2 The consent given in Article 17.1 and the submission by a disputing investor of a claim to arbitration shall satisfy the requirement of:
18.1 The arbitral Tribunal shall consist of three arbitrators with relevant expertise or experience in public international law, international trade and international investment law, or the resolution of disputes arising under international trade or international investment agreements. They shall be independent of, and not be affiliated with or take instructions from a disputing party or the government of a Party with regard to trade and investment matters. Arbitrators shall not take instructions from any organisation, government or disputing party with regard to matters related to the dispute.
18.2 One arbitrator shall be appointed by each of the disputing parties and the third arbitrator ("Presiding Arbitrator") shall be appointed by agreement of the coarbitrators and the disputing parties.
18.3 If a Tribunal has not been constituted within one hundred twenty days (120) days from the date that a Claim is submitted to arbitration under this Article, the appointing authority under this Article shall be the following:
18.4 The appointing authority shall appoint in her/his discretion and after consultation with the disputing parties, the arbitrator or arbitrators not yet appointed.
19.1 Every arbitrator appointed to resolve disputes under this Treaty shall during the entire arbitration proceedings be impartial, independent and free of any actual or potential conflict of interest.
19.2 Upon nomination and, if appointed, every arbitrator shall, on an ongoing basis, disclose in writing any circumstances that may, in the eyes of the disputing parties, give rise to doubts as to her/his independence, impartiality, or freedom from conflicts of interest. This includes any items listed in Article 19.10 and any other relevant circumstances pertaining to the subject matter of the dispute, and to existing or past, direct or indirect, financial, personal, business, or professional relationships with any of the parties, legal counsel, representatives, witnesses, or co-arbitrators. Such disclosure shall be made immediately upon the arbitrator acquiring knowledge of such circumstances, and shall be made to the co-arbitrators, the parties to the arbitration and the appointing authority, if any, making an appointment. Neither the ability of those individuals or entities to access this information independently, nor the availability of that information in the public domain, will relieve any arbitrator of his or her affirmative duty to make these disclosures. Doubts regarding whether disclosure is required shall be resolved in favour of such disclosure.
19.3 A disputing party may challenge an arbitrator appointed under this Treaty:
Provided that no such challenge may be initiated after fifteen days of that party: (i) learning of the relevant facts or circumstances through a disclosure made under Article 19.2 by the arbitrator, or (iii) otherwise becoming aware of the relevant facts or circumstances relevant to a challenge under Article 19.3, whichever is later.
19.4 The notice of challenge shall be communicated to the disputing party, to the arbitrator who is challenged, to the other arbitrators and to the appointing authority under Article 18.3. The notice of challenge shall state the reasons for the challenge.
19.5 When an arbitrator has been challenged by a disputing party, all disputing parties may agree to the challenge. The arbitrator may also, after the challenge, withdraw from his or her office. In neither case does this imply acceptance of the validity of the grounds for the challenge.
19.6 If, within 15 days from the date of the notice of challenge, the disputing parties do not agree to the challenge or the challenged arbitrator does not withdraw, the disputing party making the challenge may elect to pursue it. In that case, within 30 days from the date of the notice of challenge, it shall seek a decision on the challenge by the appointing authority as specified under Article 18.3.
19.7 The appointing authority as specified under Article 18.3 shall accept the challenge made under Article 19.3 if, even in the absence of actual bias, there are circumstances that would give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator's lack of independence, impartiality, freedom from conflicts of interest, or ability to perform his or her role, in the eyes of an objective third party.
19.8 In any event where an arbitrator has to be replaced during the course of the arbitral proceedings, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed or chosen pursuant to the procedure provided for in the Treaty and the arbitration rules that were applicable to the appointment or choice of the arbitrator being replaced. This procedure shall apply even if during the process of appointing the arbitrator to be replaced, a disputing party to the arbitration had failed to exercise its right to appoint or to participate in the appointment.
19.9 If an arbitrator is replaced, the proceedings may resume at the stage where the arbitrator who was replaced ceased to perform his or her functions unless otherwise agreed by the disputing parties.
19.10 A justifiable doubt as to an arbitrator's independence or impartiality or freedom from conflicts of interest shall be deemed to exist on account of the following factors, including if:
19.11 The Parties shall by mutual agreement and after completion of their respective procedures adopt a separate code of conduct for arbitrators to be applied in disputes arising out of this Treaty, which may replace or supplement the existing rules in application. Such a code and may address topics such as disclosure obligations, the independence and impartiality of arbitrators and confidentiality.
20.1 Unless the disputing parties agree otherwise, a Tribunal shall hold an arbitration in the territory of a country that is a party to the New York Convention, selected in accordance with:
20.2 Unless otherwise agreed by the disputing parties, the Tribunal may determine a place for meetings and hearings and the legal seat of arbitration. In doing so, the Tribunal shall take into consideration the convenience of the disputing parties and the arbitrators, the location of the subject matter, the proximity of the evidence, and give special consideration to the capital city of the Defending Party.
20.3 When considering matters of evidence or production of documents, the Tribunal shall not have any powers to compel production of documents which the Defending Party claims are protected from disclosure under the rules on confidentiality or privilege under its law.
21.1 Without prejudice to a Tribunal's authority to address other objections, a Tribunal shall address and decide as a preliminary question any objection by the Defending Party that a claim submitted by the investor is: (a) not within the scope of the Tribunal's jurisdiction, or (b) manifestly without legal merit or unfounded as a matter of law.
21.2 Such objection shall be submitted to the Tribunal as soon as possible after the Tribunal is constituted, and in no event later than the date the Tribunal fixes for the Defending Party to submit its counter-memorial (or, in the case of an amendment to the notice of arbitration, the date the Tribunal fixes for the Defending Party to submit its response to the amendment).
21.3 On receipt of an objection under this Article, the Tribunal shall suspend any proceedings on the merits, establish a schedule for considering the objection consistent with any schedule it has established for considering any other preliminary question and issue a decision or award on the objection, stating the grounds therefor. In deciding an objection under this Article, the Tribunal shall assume to be true claimant's factual allegations in support of any claim in the notice of arbitration (or any amendment thereof). The Tribunal may also consider any relevant facts not in dispute.
21.4 The Tribunal shall issue an award under this Article no later than 150 days after the date of the receipt of the request under Article 21.2. However, if a Defending Party requests a hearing, the Tribunal may take an additional 30 days to issue the decision or award.
21.5 The Defending Party does not waive any objection as to competence or any argument on the merits merely because the Defending Party did or did not raise an objection or make use of the expedited procedure set out this Article.
21.6 When it decides on a preliminary objection by a Defending Party under Article 21.2 or 21.3, the Tribunal may, if warranted, award to the prevailing Defending Party reasonable costs and attorneys' fees incurred in submitting or opposing the objection. In determining whether such an award is warranted, the Tribunal shall consider whether either the claim by the disputing investor or the objection by the Defending Party was frivolous, and shall provide the disputing parties a reasonable opportunity to present its cases.
22.1 Subject to applicable law regarding protection of confidential information, the Defending Party shall make available to the public the following documents relating to a dispute under this Chapter:
22.2 Hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument ("hearings") shall be made public in accordance with the following provisions:
22.3 An award of a Tribunal rendered under this Article shall be publicly available, subject to the redaction of confidential information. Where a Defending Party determines that it is in the public interest to do so and notifies the Tribunal of that determination, all other documents submitted to, or issued by, the Tribunal shall also be publicly available, subject to the redaction of confidential information.
22.4 The Non-disputing Party may make oral and written submissions to the Tribunal regarding the interpretation of this Treaty.
23.1 This Treaty shall be interpreted in the context of the high level of deference that international law accords to States with regard to their development and implementation of domestic policies.
23.2 The disputing investor at all times bears the burden of establishing: (a) jurisdiction; (b) the existence of an obligation under Chapter II of this Treaty, other than the obligation under Article 9 or 10; (c) a breach of such obligation; (d) that the investment, or the investor with respect to its investment, has suffered actual and non-speculative losses as a result of the breach; and (e) that those losses were foreseeable and directly caused by the breach.
23.3 The governing law for interpretation of this Treaty by a Tribunal constituted under this Article shall be: (a) this Treaty; (b) the general principles of public international law relating to the interpretation of treaties, including the presumption of consistency between international treaties to which the Parties are party; and (c) for matters relating to domestic law, the law of the Defending Party.
24.1 Interpretations of specific provisions and decisions on application of this Treaty issued subsequently by the Parties in accordance with this Treaty shall be binding on tribunals established under this Article upon issuance of such interpretations or decisions.
24.2 In accordance with the Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties, 1969 and customary international law, other evidence of the Parties subsequent agreement and practice regarding interpretation or application of this Treaty shall constitute authoritative interpretations of this Treaty and must be taken into account by tribunals under this Chapter.
24.3 The Tribunal may, on its own account or at the request of a Defending Party, request the joint interpretation of any provision of this Treaty that is subject of a dispute. The Parties shall submit in writing any joint decision declaring their interpretation to the Tribunal within sixty (60) days of the request. Without prejudice to the rights of the Parties under Article 24.1 and 24.2, if the Parties fail to submit a decision to the Tribunal within sixty (60) days, any interpretation issued individually by a Party shall be forwarded to the disputing parties and the Tribunal, which may take into account such interpretation.
Without prejudice to the appointment of other kinds of experts where authorized by the applicable arbitration rules, and unless the disputing parties disapprove, a Tribunal may appoint experts to report to it in writing on any factual issue concerning environmental, health, safety, technical or other scientific matters raised by a disputing party, subject to such terms and conditions as the disputing parties may agree.
26.1 An award shall include a judgement as to whether there has been a breach by the Defending Party of any rights conferred under this Treaty in respect of the disputing investor and its investment and the legal basis and the reasons for its decisions.
26.2 The arbitral tribunal shall reach its decision by a majority of votes. Such decision shall be binding on both disputing parties to the arbitration.
26.3 A tribunal can only award monetary compensation for a breach of the obligations under Chapter II of the Treaty. Monetary damages shall not be greater than the loss suffered by the investor or, as applicable, the locally established enterprise, reduced by any prior damages or compensation already provided by a Party. For the calculation of monetary damages, the Tribunal shall also reduce the damages to take into account any restitution of property or repeal or modification of the measure, or other mitigating factors. [Mitigating factors can include, current and past use of the investment, the history of its acquisition and purpose, compensation received by the investor from other sources, any unremedied harm or damage that the investor has caused to the environment or local community or other relevant considerations regarding the need to balance public interest and the interests of the investor.]
26.4 A tribunal may not award punitive or moral damages or any injunctive relief against either of the Parties under any circumstance.
27.1 An award made by a tribunal shall have no binding force except between the disputing parties and in respect of the particular case and the tribunal must clearly state those limitations in the text of the award.
27.2 Subject to Article 27.3, a disputing party shall abide by and comply with an award without delay.
27.3 A disputing party may not seek enforcement of a final award until:
27.4. Each Party shall provide for the enforcement of an award in its territory in accordance with its law.
27.5 A claim that is submitted to arbitration under this Article shall be considered to arise out of a commercial relationship or transaction for purposes of Article I of the New York Convention.
The disputing parties shall share the costs of the arbitration, with arbitrator fees, expenses, allowances and other administrative costs. The disputing parties shall also bear the cost of its representation in the arbitral proceedings. The Tribunal may, however, in its discretion direct that the entire costs or a higher proportion of costs shall be borne by one of the two disputing parties and this determination shall be final and binding on both disputing parties.
The Parties may by agreement or after the completion of their respective procedures regarding the enforcement of this Treaty may establish an institutional mechanism [This may include an appellate mechanism for reviewing investor-state disputes established under a separate multilateral agreement in future.] to develop an appellate body or similar mechanism to review awards rendered by tribunals under this chapter. Such appellate body or similar mechanism may be designed to provide coherence to the interpretation of provisions in this Treaty. In developing such a mechanism, the Parties may take into account the following issues, among others:
30.1 If a disputing investor has commenced a dispute against a Defending Party under this Chapter, the Non-disputing Party shall not give diplomatic protection, or bring an international claim, in respect of such dispute between one of its investors and the Defending Party, unless the Defending Party has failed to abide by and comply with an award or the decisions of its courts, as the case may be, in accordance with this Chapter and other applicable law regarding recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards.
30.2 Nothing in this Chapter precludes a Defending Party from requesting consultations or seeking agreement with the other Party on issues of interpretation or application of the Treaty. In response to such a request, the other Party shall engage in good faith consultations on the matters requested.
Chapter V: State-State Dispute Settlement
31.1 Disputes between the Parties concerning:
31.2 If a dispute between the Parties cannot be settled within six months from the time the dispute arose, it shall upon the request of either Party be submitted to a Tribunal.
31.3 Such a Tribunal shall be constituted for each individual case in the following way: Within two months of the receipt of the request for arbitration, each Party shall appoint one member of the Tribunal. Those two members shall then select a national of a third State who, on approval by the two Parties, shall be appointed Chairman of the Tribunal. The Chairman shall be appointed within two months from the date of appointment of the other two members.
31.4 If within the periods specified in Article 31.3 the necessary appointment(s) have not been made, either Party may, in the absence of any other agreement, invite the President of the International Court of Justice to make any necessary appointment(s). If the President is a national of either Party or if he or she is otherwise prevented from discharging the said function, the Vice President shall be invited to make the necessary appointment(s). If the Vice President is a national of either Party or if he or she too is prevented from discharging the said function, the member of the International Court of Justice next in seniority who is not a national of either Party shall be invited to make the necessary appointment(s).
31.5 The arbitral tribunal shall reach its decision by a majority of votes. Such decision shall be binding on both Parties.
31.6 The Parties to the arbitration shall share the costs of the arbitration, including the arbitrator fees, expenses, allowances and other administrative costs. Each Party shall bear the cost of its representation in the arbitral proceedings. The Tribunal may, however, in its discretion direct that the entire costs or a higher proportion of costs shall be borne by one of the two disputing Parties and this determination shall be binding on both disputing Parties.
31.7 The Tribunal shall decide all questions relating to its competence and, subject to any agreement between the disputing Parties, determine its own procedure, taking into account the PCA Optional Rules.
Chapter VI: Exceptions
32.1 Nothing in this Treaty shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by a Party of measures of general applicability applied on a nondiscriminatory basis that are necessary [In considering whether a measure is "necessary", the Tribunal shall take into account whether there was no less restrictive alternative measure reasonably available to a Party.] to:
32.2 Nothing in this Treaty shall apply to non-discriminatory measures of general application taken by a central bank or monetary authority of a Party in pursuit of monetary and related credit policies or exchange rate policies. This paragraph is without prejudice to a Party's rights and obligations under Article 6.
32.3 Nothing in this Treaty shall affect the rights and obligations of Parties as members of the International Monetary Fund under the IMF Articles of Agreement, as applicable from time to time, including the use of exchange actions which are in conformity with the IMF Articles of Agreement. In case of any inconsistency between the provisions of this Agreement and the IMF Articles of Agreement, the latter shall prevail.
33.1 Nothing in this Treaty shall be construed:
33.2 Each Party shall inform the other Party to the fullest extent possible of measures taken under Article 33.1 and of their termination.
33.3 Nothing in this Chapter shall be construed to require a Party to accord the benefits of this Treaty to an investor of the other Party where a Party adopts or maintains measures in any legislation or regulations which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests with respect to a non-Party or an investor of a non-Party that would be violated or circumvented if the benefits of this Chapter were accorded to such juridical person or to its investments.
33.4 This Article shall be interpreted in accordance with the understanding of the Parties on security exceptions as set out in Annex 1, which shall form an integral part of this Treaty.
Chapter VII: Final Provisions
34.1 This Treaty or any action taken hereunder shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Parties under any other Agreements to which they are parties.
34.2 Any inconsistency, or question regarding the relationship between this Treaty and another bilateral agreement between the Parties, or a multilateral agreement to which both Parties are a party, shall be resolved in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.
A Party may at any time, including after the institution of arbitration proceedings in accordance with Chapter IV of this Treaty, deny the benefits of this Treaty to:
36.1 Either Party may request, and the other Party shall promptly agree to, consultations in good faith on any issue regarding the interpretation, application, implementation, execution or any other matter including, but not limited to:
(iv) subject to Article 30, addressing disputes arising under Chapter IV of this Treaty or any other disputes arising out of investment.
36.2 Further to consultations under this Article, the Parties may take any action as they may jointly decide, including making and adopting rules supplementing the applicable arbitral rules under Chapter IV or Chapter V of this Treaty, issuing binding interpretations of this Treaty, and adopting joint measures in order to improve the effectiveness of this Treaty.
36.3 The Parties shall meet every five years after the entry into force of this Treaty to consult and review the operation and effectiveness of this Treaty.
37.1 This Treaty may be amended at any time at the request of either Party. The requesting Party must submit its request in written form explaining the grounds on which the amendment shall be made. The other Party shall consult with the requesting Party regarding the proposed amendment and must also respond to the request in writing.
37.2 This Treaty will stand automatically amended at all times to the extent that the Parties agree. Any agreement to amend the treaty pursuant to this Article must be expressed in writing, whether in a single written instrument or through an exchange of diplomatic notes. These amendments shall be binding on the tribunals constituted under Chapter IV or Chapter V of this Treaty and a tribunal award must be consistent with all amendments to this Treaty.
38.1 This Treaty shall be subject to ratification and shall enter into force on the date of exchange of instruments of ratification.
38.2 This Treaty shall remain in force for a period of ten years and shall lapse thereafter unless the Parties expressly agree in writing that it shall be renewed. This Treaty may be terminated anytime after its entry into force if either Party gives to the other Party a prior notice in writing twelve (12) months in advance stating its intention to terminate the Treaty. The Treaty shall stand terminated immediately after the expiry of the twelve (12) month notice period.
38.3 In respect of investments made prior to the date when the termination of this Treaty becomes effective, the provisions of this Treaty shall remain in force for a period of five years.
In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Treaty.
Done at ____________on this ________ day of _________ in two originals each in the Hindi, English and (languages), all texts being equally authoritative.
In case of any divergence in interpretation, the English text shall prevail.
For the Government of the Republic of India
For the Government of the Republic of ______
Annex 1: Security Exceptions
The Parties confirm the following understanding with respect to interpretation and/or implementation of Article 33 of this Treaty: